Estableciendo las bases para prevenir el consumo temprano de alcohol: análisis de las actitudes de adolescentes de 12 a 14 años

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Carlos Teira
Alicia Risso

Resumen

En la actualidad, el consumo temprano de alcohol es una preocupación de salud pública por los problemas que puede ocasionar en los adolescentes, tanto a nivel físico, como social o psicológico. Por ello, la finalidad de este trabajo fue investigar sobre las actitudes subyacentes a los principales motivos de consumo de alcohol al comienzo de esa etapa evolutiva, ya que actúan como factores de riesgo de consumo prematuro. Para ello, se contó con una muestra de 181 adolescentes de ambos sexos residentes en la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, de entre 12 y 14 años de edad. La recogida de datos se realizó a partir de un cuestionario diseñado específicamente hoc para ser cubierto online, cuyas preguntas se agrupaban en tres dimensiones motivacionales: socialización, mejora y afrontamiento. El análisis de su consistencia interna mostró una elevada fiabilidad. Para el análisis de los resultados se hicieron contrastes de medias con pruebas post hoc y se estudiaron las correlaciones. Se observó que las variables que tienen una relación significativa con la evaluación afectiva de las expectativas o actitudes son la edad y la exposición previa al consumo y, en menor grado, el sexo. Además, se han podido detectar las dimensiones motivacionales y los ítems actitudinales concretos que pueden implicar un mayor riesgo de consumo futuro. Con esta información será posible desarrollar una propuesta metodológica de modelado de actitudes, que podría integrarse en programas de prevención destinados a evitar el consumo temprano de alcohol.

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Carlos Teira, Universidade da Coruña

Universidade da Coruña

Alicia Risso, Universidade da Coruña

Universidade da Coruña

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